Physics model

The materials expand, or shrink when the temperature changes. With macroscopic models it can be modeled with the thermal expansion coefficients $\alpha$, with the generality of the formalism it can be written:

\[ \epsilon=\epsilon_0 +\alpha \cdot T \]

\[ \epsilon_{ij}=\epsilon_{0ij} +\alpha_{ij} \cdot T \]

In the material database the $\alpha$ matrix expected to be diagonal with the convention $\alpha_{ii} = \alpha_{i}$


2D Simulations

Thermal Stress in Plane